British Military Leadership and Provincial Loyalty

Emerging Revolutionary War welcomes back guest historian George Kotlik

Introduction

By 1775, King George III ruled over nineteen provinces in British North America.[1] Six remained loyal to the Crown during the Revolutionary War. Historians have so far explored, in great depth, the various reasons why the thirteen original colonies rebelled. On the flipside, why did some colonies remain loyal? What role did colonial governors play in securing their province’s loyalty during the rebellion? In an attempt to answer these questions, this research will focus on British North America’s mainland colonial governors and general assemblies during 1775. Data on the backgrounds of each British colonial governor on the North American mainland was gathered from their respective biographies. Hereafter, each governor’s background is considered by colony, listed in alphabetical order. Each biography is brief and not meant to be comprehensive. There is not enough time or space in this paper to accomplish that end. Instead, the biographies help determine the type of individual who governed each province at the rebellion’s onset – a unique factor that I argue contributed, in whatever small way, to a colony’s political disposition during the American Revolution. In addition to looking at provincial executive leadership, I have also inspected general assemblies. General assemblies were an important aspect in this research due to the fact that the mere presence of an assembly influenced a colony’s political disposition in 1775. What’s more, colonial governors wielded the authority to dissolve assemblies. That connection, in addition to the assemblies’ influence on provincial loyalty, I argue, merits their inclusion in this study.[2]

Data Collection

At the end of this section, the following data is divided between two charts.

1. Connecticut

  • Governor Jonathan Trumbull: Jonathan Trumbull served a variety of roles in colonial society: merchant, minister, colonial militia officer, and career politician. While still operating a business, Trumbull studied law before entering public service. In May 1733, he was elected a Deputy from Lebanon to the General Assembly. He served the Connecticut government for the next fifty years.[3] Jonathan became Connecticut’s governor from 1769 to 1784.
  • Structure of Connecticut’s Colonial Administration in 1775: Connecticut Colonial Government operated in conjunction with a General Assembly (elected men from throughout the province)

Governor Jonathan Trumbull: Native-born American, Colonial Militia Officer, Merchant, Career Politician

Colonial Government: Yes, General Assembly

2. Delaware

  • Governor John Penn: The eldest son of Richard Penn, John Penn was a Pennsylvania proprietor. Although born in London, John spent a large part of his life in North America. In 1763 he became Pennsylvania’s governor, a position that encompassed the administration of the Lower Counties on the Delaware, sometimes called the province of Delaware.[4] Despite his brief absence from the governorship, he resumed his duties in 1773.
  • Structure of Delaware’s Colonial Administration in 1775: Yes, it did have a General Assembly.[5]

Governor John Penn: Civilian, Proprietor, Businessman

Colonial Government: Yes, General Assembly

3. East Florida

  • Governor Patrick Tonyn: Patrick Tonyn was born in 1725 in Ireland. After a long career in the military and significant service in the Seven Years’ War, Tonyn distinguished himself as a competent soldier. He was appointed governor of East Florida in 1774, a position he would retain until 1784.[6]
  • Structure of East Florida’s Colonial Administration in 1775: East Florida did not have a General Assembly until 1781.[7] Prior to its establishment, the governor ruled East Florida autocratically alongside his select council of advisors.

Governor Patrick Tonyn: British Military Officer

Colonial Government: No General Assembly

4. Georgia

  • Governor James Wright: James Wright was born on May 8, 1716 in London, England. In 1730, James moved to the American colonies with his father who became chief justice of South Carolina. When he was old enough, James followed in his father’s footsteps and became a lawyer and plantation owner. In April 1761, James Wright became Georgia’s last royal governor.[8] During the Revolutionary War, James remained loyal to Great Britain.
  • Structure of Georgia’s Colonial Administration in 1775: Yes, it did have a General Assembly.

Governor James Wright: Civilian, Lawyer, Jurist, Plantation Owner

Colonial Government: Yes, General Assembly.[9]

5. Maryland

  • Governor Sir Robert Eden: Sir Robert Eden was born on September 14, 1741. After his father’s death, Robert obtained a commission in the British Army. He went on to serve in Germany during the Seven Years’ War. Upon his return to London, he married Caroline Calvert, the daughter of a wealthy and influential family. Robert’s alliance with this family would eventually place him in Maryland’s governorship. He accepted that position in 1769.[10]
  • Structure of Maryland’s Colonial Administration in 1775: A General Assembly existed.[11]

Governor Sir Robert Eden: Former British Military Officer, Career Politician

Colonial Government: Yes, General Assembly

6. Massachusetts

  • Governor Thomas Hutchinson/Thomas Gage: Thomas Hutchinson was born on September 9, 1711. A native-born American, Hutchinson was skilled at business. He eventually became a career politician. To reestablish British control over rebellious Boston, Thomas Gage replaced Hutchinson as Massachusetts’ governor.
  • Structure of Massachusetts’ Colonial Administration in 1775: A General Assembly existed in Massachusetts under Thomas Hutchinson. When Thomas Gage took control of the colony, he dissolved the Massachusetts General Assembly in 1774 when he learned they were appointing delegates for the Continental Congress.[12]

Governor Thomas Hutchinson: Native-Born American, Civilian, Career Politician, Businessman, Historian

Governor Thomas Gage: British Military Officer

Colonial Government: Yes, General Assembly until 1774; No General Assembly after 1774

7. Newfoundland

  • Governor Robert Duff: Robert Duff was a British Naval Officer who eventually became an admiral in the Royal Navy. He briefly served as Newfoundland’s governor in 1775.[13]
  • Structure of Newfoundland’s Colonial Administration in 1775: In the 1770s, Newfoundland did not have an assembly. Government administration of that colony in 1775 rested in the hands of authoritarian naval governors.[14]

Governor Robert Duff: British Royal Admiral

Colonial Government: No Colonial Assembly

8. New Hampshire

  • Governor Sir John Wentworth: Sir John Wentworth was born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire on August 9, 1737.[15] Following in his father’s footsteps, John would eventually enter politics and become governor of New Hampshire in 1767. He served in that capacity until 1775.
  • Structure of New Hampshire’s Colonial Administration in 1775: A General Assembly existed.[16]

Governor Sir John Wentworth: Native-born American, Businessman, Politician

Colonial Government: Yes, General Assembly

9. New Jersey

  • Governor William Franklin: The illegitimate son of famous American patriot Benjamin Franklin, William Franklin was born in 1731.[17] In 1763, William was appointed governor of New Jersey in 1763 and would remain loyal to the British during the Revolutionary War.
  • Structure of New Jersey’s Colonial Administration in 1775: A General Assembly existed.[18]

Governor William Franklin: Native-born American, Lawyer, Colonial Militia Officer, Politician

Colonial Government: Yes, General Assembly before November 1775; No General Assembly after November 1775.[19]

10. New York

  • Governor Cadwallader Colden:[20] Cadwallader Colden was born on February 16, 1688 in Scotland. After studying medicine in London, he emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1710. While visiting New York in 1718, Colden was offered a position in New York’s government. He accepted served that province for the rest of his life.[21] On April 14, 1761, Colden was offered New York’s lieutenant governorship. He accepted and served in that role until he died in 1776.[22] Periodically, Colden served as acting governor.
  • Structure of New York’s Colonial Administration in 1775: A General Assembly existed.[23]

Governor Cadwallader Colden: Civilian, Physician, Natural Scientist, Politician

Colonial Government: Yes, General Assembly.

11. North Carolina

  • Governor Josiah Martin: Josiah Martin was born on April 23, 1737 in Dublin Ireland. Following his dreams of becoming a British military officer, Josiah became a Lieutenant Colonel. Later, he became a bureaucrat with a comfortable salary which supported his large family.[24] In 1771 he became North Carolina’s governor.
  • Structure of North Carolina’s Colonial Administration in 1775: A General Assembly existed.[25]

Governor Josiah Martin: Former British Military Officer, Politician

Colonial Government: Yes, General Assembly

12. Nova Scotia

  • Governor Francis Legge: Born sometime in 1719, Francis Legge was a British military officer. He became Nova Scotia’s governor in 1773. He remained at that post until 1776.[26]
  • Structure of Nova Scotia’s Colonial Administration in 1775: Despite the governor’s protests, British government officials in London pushed for the creation of Nova Scotia’s General Assembly.[27]

Governor Francis Legge: British Military Officer

Colonial Government: Yes, General Assembly (formed in 1758)

13. Pennsylvania

  • Governor John Penn: The eldest son of Richard Penn, John Penn was a Pennsylvania proprietor. Although born in London, John spent a large part of his life in North America. In 1763 he became Pennsylvania’s governor.[28] Despite his brief absence from the governorship, he resumed his duties in 1773.
  • Structure of Pennsylvania’s Colonial Administration in 1775: A General Assembly remained active during the Revolutionary Movement.

Governor John Penn: Civilian, Proprietor, Businessman

Colonial Government: Yes, General Assembly

14. Prince Edward Island

  • Governor Walter Patterson: Walter Patterson was born in Ireland. The exact date of his birth is unknown. He joined the British Army and served in America with the 8th Regiment. In 1769 he was appointed governor of Prince Edward Island. He remained in that position until 1784.[29]
  • Structure of Prince Edward Island’s Colonial Administration in 1775: The General Assembly first formed in 1773.[30]

Governor Walter Patterson: British Military Officer

Colonial Government: Yes, General Assembly (formed in 1773)

15. Quebec

  • Governor Guy Carleton: Guy Carleton was born in Great Britain in 1724. In 1742 he received an ensign’s commission in the British Army. He attained the rank of Lieutenant Colonel at the outbreak of the Seven Years’ War. He became the governor of Quebec in 1768. He remained in that position until 1778.[31]
  • Structure of Quebec’s Colonial Administration in 1775: Quebec operated under the governor’s authoritarian rule.

Governor Guy Carleton: British Military Officer

Colonial Government: No General Assembly

16. Rhode Island

  • Governor Joseph Wanton: Joseph Wanton was born into a well-connected family in Newport, Rhode Island on August 16, 1705. Joseph was a businessman for much of his life. In May 1769 he became governor of Rhode Island. He was governor until 1775.[32]
  • Structure of Rhode Island’s Colonial Administration in 1775: Yes, there existed a Colonial Assembly.[33]

Governor Joseph Wanton: Native-born American, Businessman

Colonial Government: Yes, General Assembly

17. South Carolina

  • Governor Lord William Campbell: Little is known of Lord William Campbell’s early life. He joined the Royal Navy where he rose to the rank of Naval Captain. Through his family connections, he briefly became governor of South Carolina in 1775.[34]
  • Structure of South Carolina’s Colonial Administration in 1775: The General Assembly first convened in the first decade of the eighteenth century.[35]

Governor Lord William Campbell: British Royal Navy Officer

Colonial Government: Yes, General Assembly

18. Virginia

  • Governor Lord Dunmore: John Murray, otherwise known as Lord Dunmore, was Virginia’s last royal governor. Born in 1730, John enjoyed a long career in government. Through his personal connections, he obtained the governorships of New York, Virginia, and the Bahamas.[36]
  • Structure of Virginia’s Colonial Administration in 1775: The Colonial Assembly was assembled.[37]

Governor Lord Dunmore: Aristocrat

Colonial Government: Yes, General Assembly

19. West Florida

  • Governor Peter Chester: Little is known about Peter Chester’s life. From what few records remain on the man, it is difficult to ascertain whether he was a civilian or a military careerist. In a clipping from a newspaper titled, The Newcastle Weekly Courant, dated August 18, 1781, Peter gives an account of the Siege of Pensacola. His account describes the colony’s defense and his separation from it. This indicates his lack of connection to the British military. What’s more, Peter is referred to as esquire, a titled reserved for lawyers.[38] Because of these reasons, we can safely conclude that Peter Chester was most likely a civilian, although this is difficult to say with certainty. Whatever his background, he became West Florida’s governor in 1770.[39]
  • Structure of West Florida’s Colonial Administration in 1775: No Colonial Assembly convened in 1775.[40]

Governor Peter Chester: Unknown

Colonial Government: No General Assembly

____________________________________________________________________________

Backgrounds of Each Colonial Governor
British Military Officer (Army and/or Navy) in 1775Native-born AmericanCivilianLawyerPoliticianAristocratProprietorBusinessman/MerchantScientistColonial Militia OfficerJuristPhysician
1. Connecticut – Governor Jonathan Trumbullxxxx
2. Delaware – Governor John Pennxxx
3. East Florida – Governor Patrick Tonynx
4. Georgia – Governor James Wrightxxx
5. Maryland – Governor Sir Robert Edenx
6. Massachusetts – Governor Thomas Hutchinsonxxxx
7. Newfoundland – Governor Robert Duffx
8. New Hampshire – Governor Sir John Wentworthxxx
9. New Jersey – Governor William Franklinxxxx
10. New York – Governor Cadwallader Coldenxxxx
11. North Carolina – Governor Josiah Martinx
12. Nova Scotia – Governor Francis Leggex
13. Pennsylvania – Governor John Pennxxx
14. Prince Edward Island – Governor Walter Pattersonx
15. Quebec – Governor Guy Carletonx
16. Rhode Island – Governor Joseph Wantonxx
17. South Carolina – Governor Lord William Campbellx
18. Virginia – Governor Lord Dunmorex
19. West Florida – Governor Peter Chesterx
Presence/Existence of a Colonial Assembly in 1775
YesNo
1. Connecticutx
2. Delawarex
3. East Floridax
4. Georgiax
5. Marylandx
6. Massachusettsx
7. Newfoundlandx
8. New Hampshirex
9. New Jerseyx
10. New Yorkx
11. North Carolinax
12. Nova Scotiax
13. Pennsylvaniax
14. Prince Edward Islandx
15. Quebecx
16. Rhode Islandx
17. South Carolinax
18. Virginiax
19. West Floridax

Conclusion

Taken together, this data reveals a pattern of similar characteristics shared among the governors of provinces that remained loyal to the British Crown during the start of the Revolutionary War. East and West Florida, Newfoundland, and Quebec did not have a general assembly in 1775. The governors who administered East Florida, Newfoundland, and Quebec just so happened to be British military officers. Both Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia boasted a general assembly. Nova Scotia’s assembly first met in 1758; Prince Edward Island’s in 1773. The infancy of these general assembly’s likely influenced their province’s political disposition to the Crown, in addition to their governor’s British military backgrounds. Had they been given more time to mature, it is likely the assemblies would have directed, in no small degree, their colony’s participation in the rebellion. Conversely, colonies without an elected lower house all managed to remain loyal to Britain. Indeed, the inability of many colonists to organize and voice their collective concerns, exercised in the general assembly, and the experience derived therein from self-government, likely disallowed any effective mobilization of an anti-British movement in those parts during the American Revolution. At length, this study suggests that British North American governors with British military backgrounds were, for the most part, figures who managed to secure their province’s loyalty to the British king at the start of the Revolutionary War. Civilian governors were less likely to achieve that end.

References

Barnes, Viola F. “Francis Legge, Governor of Loyalist Nova Scotia 1773-1776.” The New England Quarterly 4, no. 3 (July 1931) pp. 420-447.

Bitterman, Rusty. Rural Protest on Prince Edward Island: From British Colonization to the Escheat Movement. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2006.

Campbell, Richard L. Historical Sketches of Colonial Florida. 1892. Reprint. Gainesville: The University Press of Florida, 1975.

Chester, Peter. The Newcastle Weekly Courant (Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear England) August 18, 1781. Newspaper Clipping. https://www.newspapers.com/clip/27866246/the_newcastle_weekly_courant/.

Coleman, Kenneth. Governor James Wright in Georgia 1760-1782. Atlanta: Georgia Commission for the Bicentennial Celebration and Georgia State Department of Education, 1975. files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED156586.pdf.

Delaware General Assembly. “History of the State House.” Legis.delaware.gov. https://legis.delaware.gov/Resources/History.

Gitin, Louis Leonard. “Cadwallader Colden as Scientist and Philosopher.” New York History 16 (April 1935): 169-177.

Greene, Jack P. The Quest For Power: The Lower Houses of Assembly in the Southern Royal Colonies 1689-1776. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1963.

Greene, Jack P., Pole, J. R. A Companion to the American Revolution. Blackwell Publishing, 2004.

Heritage Newfoundland & Labrador. “Duff, Robert (?-1787).” Heritage.nf.ca. https://www.heritage.nf.ca/articles/politics/naval-robert-duff.php.

Heritage Newfoundland & Labrador. “Naval Governors 1729-1824.” Heritage.nf.ca. https://www.heritage.nf.ca/articles/politics/naval-governors-1729-1824.php.

Howard, Clinton L. “Colonial Pensacola: The British Period Part III: The Administration of Governor Chester, 1770-1781.” The Florida Historical Quarterly 19, no .4 (April 1941): 368-401.

Labaree, Leonard Woods. Royal Government in America: A Study of the British Colonial System before 1783. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., 1958.

Lewis, J.D. “Lord William Campbell: Royal Governor of South Carolina Province 1775.” Carolina.com. http://www.carolana.com/SC/Governors/wcampbell.html.

Lowe, William C. “The Parliamentary Career of Lord Dunmore, 1761-1774.” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 96, no. 1 (January 1988): 3-30.

Mayo, Lawrence Shaw. John Wentworth: Governor of New Hampshire 1767-1775. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1921.

Piecuch, Jim. “Patrick Tonyn: Britain’s Most Effective Revolutionary-Era Royal Governor.” Journal of the American Revolution, March 22, 2018. https://allthingsliberty.com/2018/03/patrick-tonyn-britains-most-effective-revolutionary-era-royal-governor/.

Proud, Robert. The History of Pennsylvania in North America, From the Original Institution and Settlement of That Province, under the first Proprietor and Governor William Penn, in 1681, till after the Year 1742. Volume2. Philadelphia: Zachariah Poulson Jr., 1798.

Reese, Trevor R. Colonial Georgia: A Study in British Imperial Policy in the Eighteenth Century. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1963.

Skemp, Sheila L. Benjamin and William Franklin: Father and Son, Patriot and Loyalist. Bedford Books of St. Martin’s Press, 1994.

Smith, Paul H. “Sir Guy Carleton: Soldier-Statesman.” In George Washington’s Opponents: British Generals and Admirals in the American Revolution. Edited by George Athan Billias. New York: William Morrow & Company, Inc., 1969.

Steiner, Bernard Christian. Life and Administration of Sir Robert Eden. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1898.

Stumpf, Vernon O. “Josiah Martin and His Search for Success: The Road to North Carolina.” North Carolina Historical Review 53, no. 1 (January 1976): 55-79.

Wallace, William Stewart. The Macmillan Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Third Edition. Toronto, CA: The Macmillan Company of Canada Limited, 1963.

White, David O. Jonathan Trumbull: Governor of the Colony of Connecticut, 1769-1776, Governor of Connecticut, 1776-1784. Edited by the Connecticut State Library Staff. Museum of Connecticut History, July 2002. https://ctstatelibrary.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Jonathan-Trumbull.pdf.

Maryland in the American Revolution: An Exhibition by The Society of the Cincinnati. Washington D.C., 2009.

Province of New Jersey. https://revolutionary-war.org/thirteen-colonies/middle-colonies/province-of-new-jersey.php#:~:text=In%201774%20occurred%20the%20%E2%80%9CGreenwich%20Tea%20Party.%E2%80%9D%5B20%5DThe%20last,for%20a%20time%20became%20the%20supreme%20governing%20power.

The National Cyclopedia of American Biography; Being the History of the United States As Illustrated in the Lives of the Founders, Builders, and Defenders of the Republic, and of the Men and Women who are Doing the Work and Molding the Thought of the Present Time. Volume 10. New York: James T. White & Company, 1900.


[1] Connecticut, Delaware, East Florida, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, Newfoundland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Nova Scotia, Pennsylvania, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Florida.

[2] Britain’s Caribbean colonies are excluded from this study due to their geographical exclusion from mainland North America. Furthermore, I have chosen to exclude British territories that lacked an organized colonial government.

[3] David O White, Jonathan Trumbull: Governor of the Colony of Connecticut, 1769-1776, Governor of Connecticut, 1776-1784, edited by the Connecticut State Library Staff (Museum of Connecticut History, July 2002), 2, https://ctstatelibrary.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Jonathan-Trumbull.pdf.

[4] Robert Proud, The History of Pennsylvania in North America, From the Original Institution and Settlement of That Province, under the first Proprietor and Governor William Penn, in 1681, till after the Year 1742, Volume 2 (Philadelphia: Zachariah Poulson, Jr., 1798), 233.

[5] Delaware General Assembly, “History of the State House,” Legis.delaware.gov, https://legis.delaware.gov/Resources/History.

[6] Jim Piecuch, “Patrick Tonyn: Britain’s Most Effective Revolutionary-Era Royal Governor,” Journal of the American Revolution, March 22, 2018, https://allthingsliberty.com/2018/03/patrick-tonyn-britains-most-effective-revolutionary-era-royal-governor/.

[7] Piecuch, “Patrick Tonyn.”

[8] Kenneth Coleman, Governor James Wright in Georgia 1760-1782, Atlanta: Georgia Commission for the Bicentennial Celebration and Georgia State Department of Education, 1975, files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED156586.pdf.

[9] Trevor R. Reese, Colonial Georgia: A Study in British Imperial Policy in the Eighteenth Century (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1963), 22-24.

[10] Bernard Christian Steiner, Life and Administration of Sir Robert Eden, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1898).

[11] Maryland in the American Revolution: An Exhibition by The Society of the Cincinnati (Washington D.C., 2009), 2-3.

[12] Jack P. Greene, J. R. Pole, A Companion to the American Revolution (Blackwell Publishing, 2004), 202.

[13] Heritage Newfoundland & Labrador, “Duff, Robert (?-1787),” Heritage.nf.ca. https://www.heritage.nf.ca/articles/politics/naval-robert-duff.php.

[14] Heritage Newfoundland & Labrador, “Naval Governors 1729-1824,” Heritage.nf.ca. https://www.heritage.nf.ca/articles/politics/naval-governors-1729-1824.php.

[15] Lawrence Shaw Mayo, John Wentworth: Governor of New Hampshire 1767-1775 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1921), 7.

[16] Jack P. Greene, The Quest For Power: The Lower Houses of Assembly in the Southern Royal Colonies 1689-1776 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1963), 2-3.

[17] Sheila L. Skemp, Benjamin and William Franklin: Father and Son, Patriot and Loyalist (Bedford Books of St. Martin’s Press, 1994), 12.

[18] Province of New Jersey, https://revolutionary-war.org/thirteen-colonies/middle-colonies/province-of-new-jersey.php#:~:text=In%201774%20occurred%20the%20%E2%80%9CGreenwich%20Tea%20Party.%E2%80%9D%5B20%5DThe%20last,for%20a%20time%20became%20the%20supreme%20governing%20power.

[19] Province of New Jersey.

[20] Technically, William Tryon was New York’s governor. However, by 1775 he was away on a trip to England. In his absence, Colden served as acting governor. Tryon returned to New York in June 1775.

[21] Louis Leonard Gitin, “Cadwallader Colden as Scientist and Philosopher,” New York History 16 (April 1935): 169-170.

[22] Gitin, “Cadwallader Colden as Scientist and Philosopher,” 170.

[23] Greene, A Companion to the American Revolution, 30.

[24] Vernon O. Stumpf, “Josiah Martin and His Search for Success: The Road to North Carolina,” North Carolina Historical Review 53, no. 1 (January 1976): 55-79.

[25] Greene, The Quest For Power, 6.

[26] Viola F. Barnes, “Francis Legge, Governor of Loyalist Nova Scotia 1773-1776,” The New England Quarterly 4, no. 3 (July 1931): 420-447.

[27] Leonard Woods Labaree, Royal Government in America: A Study of the British Colonial System before 1783 (New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., 1958), 176.

[28] Proud, The History of Pennsylvania in North America (Philadelphia: Zachariah Poulson, Jr., 1798), 2:233.

[29] William Stewart Wallace, The Macmillan Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Third Edition (Toronto, CA: The Macmillan Company of Canada Limited, 1963), 584.

[30] Rusty Bitterman, Rural Protest on Prince Edward Island: From British Colonization to the Escheat Movement (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2006), 4.

[31] Paul H. Smith, “Sir Guy Carleton: Soldier-Statesman,” in George Washington’s Opponents: British Generals and Admirals in the American Revolution, edited by George Athan Billias (New York: William Morrow & Company, Inc., 1969), 103-105.

[32] The National Cyclopedia of American Biography; Being the History of the United States As Illustrated in the Lives of the Founders, Builders, and Defenders of the Republic, and of the Men and Women who are Doing the Work and Molding the Thought of the Present Time, Volume 10 (New York: James T. White & Company, 1900), 15-16.

[33] Greene, The Quest For Power, 3-4.

[34] J.D. Lewis, “Lord William Campbell: Royal Governor of South Carolina Province 1775,” Carolina.com, http://www.carolana.com/SC/Governors/wcampbell.html.

[35] Greene, The Quest For Power, 5.

[36] William C. Lowe, “The Parliamentary Career of Lord Dunmore, 1761-1774,” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 96, no. 1 (January 1988): 3-8.

[37] Greene, The Quest For Power, 6.

[38] Peter Chester, The Newcastle Weekly Courant (Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear England) August 18, 1781, Newspaper Clipping. https://www.newspapers.com/clip/27866246/the_newcastle_weekly_courant/.

[39] Clinton L. Howard, “Colonial Pensacola: The British Period Part III: The Administration of Governor Chester, 1770-1781,” The Florida Historical Quarterly, 19, no. 4 (April 1941): 368-401.

[40] Richard L. Campbell, Historical Sketches of Colonial Florida (1892; reprint, Gainesville: The University Press of Florida, 1975), 93-96.

This entry was posted in British Leadership, Emerging Revolutionary War, Memory, Politics, Revolutionary War and tagged , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

2 Responses to British Military Leadership and Provincial Loyalty

  1. BillF says:

    Interesting. I just feel like we need more information, but I realize the research would be time consuming and tiresome and I’m not sure it would be worth the trouble.

    Like

  2. Eric Sterner says:

    Interesting. It would also be useful to look at similarities and differences in attitudes towards governance and the rights of citizens. The independent variable might not be political structure but political culture. All four colonies without general assemblies were also relatively recent English acquisitions and may have lacked the traditions and attitudes towards self-government that were present in the rebelling 13. Quebec and the two Floridas, of course, had belonged respectively to France and Spain until only a few years before the American Revolution. Neither of those countries had traditions of representation or constraints on monarchical power. Newfoundland is a weird case. It had been under British governance longer than the other outliers, but was sparsely populated by Europeans, many of whom were as likely to be French or Basque fishermen as they were to be English and might have similarly lacked a conception of the rights of citizens.

    Like

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