Fight for Osborne Hill

From a Pennsylvania State Historical Commission marker, one quickly can find out the importance of Osborne Hill to the Battle of Brandywine, fought on September 11, 1777.


Osborne Hill Marker (courtesy of Keith Smith,

The hillside was the site of British General William Howe’s post in which he coordinated and commanded the different components of the British and Hessian forces that day. The battle opened the way for the British conquest of Philadelphia and was the largest, in terms of manpower fighting, of any American Revolutionary War battle.

Now, this important tract of land needs a few more people to fight for its control and preservation. Continue reading

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ERWS: A Single Blow Informational Sheet

All the information on the upcoming release of one of the inaugural volumes of the Emerging Revolutionary War Series (ERWS) from Savas Beatie! 

A Single Blow AI-page-001


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“He Stood the Field with Great Bravery”; The Story of Major Andrew Leitch, Part 2


19th century print of the Battle of Harlem Heights. The image shows the Americans attacking the British right flank.

After the Battle of Long Island, American forces evacuated to Manhattan Island. But with the British in command of the waters around New York, they easily could land their forces anywhere along Manhattan Island. On September 15th, the British crossed the East River north of New York City and landed at Kip’s Bay, easily pushing aside the American forces there. American forces in New York City were nearly cut off, but quickly retreated up Manhattan Island to Harlem Heights and began to dig in. On the morning of the next day, British troops arrived in front of the American lines at Harlem Heights. Washington expected an attack and decided to take the initiative.

Washington ordered a small party of 150 men called “The Knowlton Rangers” under the command of Lt. Col. Thomas Knowlton to move out and reconnoiter the British position.  Knowlton quickly recognized the British were not planning a major assault but his force had brought about the attention of the British light infantry, soon the Knowlton Rangers were outnumbered and quickly retreated back to the American lines.  When Knowlton reached safety, the British light infantry paused, placing them out in front of their main lines. Washington seized the opportunity and ordered an assault on their rear by Knowlton’s men and a reinforcement of 200 Virginia riflemen from the Third Virginia under Major Leitch.

Though the American attack was supposed to be in the rear of the British light infantry, but because of  confusing terrain and attacking too soon, the flanking column instead hit the British in their flank. The effect still had an adverse effect on the British light infantry as they began to fall back. The Americans fought with determination and bravery. Knowlton went down mortally wounded.  Colonel Griffith wrote of Leitch “He conducted himself on this occasion in a manner that does him the greatest honor, and so did all of his party.” Washington wrote the next day that “The General most heartily thanks the troop commanded yesterday by Major Leitch, who first advanced upon the enemy, and the officer who so resolutely supported them.”

At the head of the attacking column both Knowlton and Leitch led their men forward to attach the British flank. Early in the attack both men went down  wounded. Knowlton died on the battlefield, Leitch took three musket balls to the abdomen and was carried off the field. At first most reported his condition as improving and he was thought to survive his ordeal.  Washington wrote “Majr Leitch of Weedons Regiment (Third Virginia) had three balls through his side, and behaved exceedingly well – he is in fair way of recovery.”

Soon the British began to retreat back to their main line. Washington then ordered an attack along his line and the British light infantry fell back to the main line in confusion. Soon the entire British line began to give way. After about a 90 minute fight, Washington learned that more British forces were arriving on the field and ordered his men back to the main line. Though not a major victory, the American army had finally stood up to the British and even for a moment, pushed them off the field in combat. The British suffered 14 killed and an estimated 154 wounded, with the Americans suffering 30 killed and 100 wounded.

Though most believed that Leitch was recovering from his wounds, by September 20th Gen. Horatio Gates wrote “Major Leitch of Maryland was wounded and despaired of.” As his condition worsened, there was little for regimental surgeon David Griffith could do but to try to ease Leitch’s pain. Griffith wrote to Leitch family friend Richard Henderson on October 3rd that “[I] disagreeable duty of informing Mrs. Leitch through you, of the death of her husband is imposed upon me. He expired yesterday morning at Hackinsack Bridge where he had been removed for his better accommodation…But on the 28th Sept he was seized by lock’d jaw – with spasms about his neck and throat so violent as to baffle every effort to minister to him by medicine.”  It seems the death of Leitch was a tough and unexpected blow to his fellow officers in the Third Virginia Regiment.

Where Major Leitch’s remains are today is a mystery. Captain John Chilton wrote on

Battle of Harlem Heights Marker

Commemorative Plaque showing the wounding of Knowlton and Leitch

October 4, 1776 that “the brave Major Leitch who died of his wounds received the 16th was interred yesterday by the side of Major Henly.” We know the general area of the American camps in the fall of 1776, but this burial location is long lost to history. In 1897, historian Henry Johnston wrote in his account of the Battle of Harlem Heights that Knowlton and Leitch are probably buried somewhere “on St. Nicholas Avenue, between 135th St and 145th St.” in New York City. Of course the land has changed a lot since then and whatever remains were left were destroyed by modern development.


Today the area of the Harlem Heights battlefield is now under the campus of Columbia University in New York City. Today there is a simple plaque on the wall on the eastside of Broadway north of 117th Street. This plaque commemorates the Battle of Harlem Heights and depicts Major Andrew Leitch as well as Lt. Col. Thomas Knowlton (who was mortally wounded in the same attack as Leitch). Near here is where Leitch was mortally wounded turning the flank of the British line.

The search for Andrew Leitch continues. His contribution to the American Revolution is well documented through the letters of George Washington and others. When he moved to Dumfries, VA and where he lived is still unknown. We do know that he was influential enough to be elected to Prince William County’s Committee of Correspondence in 1774 and involved in the efforts to raise men and funds for local companies of troops. Continued research in his widow’s pension cases as well as researching contemporary archives may turn up new information. For now, he is honored with a plaque in New York City and a small park here in Virginia. My hope is that this story will end with an appropriate understanding and remembrance of a man who gave his life for our nation’s independence.


Entry in George Washington’s Papers for March 16, 1775: “Went to Dumfries to review the Independent Company there, Dined and Lodged with Mr. Leitch…”


For Further Reading:

Johnson, Henry. The Battle of Harlem Heights. New York: Macmillan Company, 1897.

Peters, Joan. The Third Virginia Regiment of Foot, 1776-1778, Volumes 1-2. Westminster (MD): Heritage Books, 2008.

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“He Stood the Field with Great Bravery” The Story of Major Andrew Leitch, Part 1

After his first battlefield victory at the Battle of Harlem Heights on September 16, 1776, General George Washington wrote “The General most heartily thanks the troop commanded yesterday by Major Andrew Leitch, who first advanced upon the enemy, and the others who resolutely supported them.” The battle was a small victory for the American army, but instilled some confidence in the men who had suffered many defeats since August on Long Island and lost New York City to the British.  One of the main players in this action was Major Andrew Leitch. A little known Continental officer who at the time was considered a rising star, but today is mostly forgotten.

Dale City WaterparkBut my  connection with Andrew Leitch goes beyond my love and interest of the American Revolution, it is more personal than that. In 2008 I met the woman that became my wife. At the time, she ran a park locally named Andrew Leitch Park. Having worked here locally for a few years, I was not aware of who the park was named after. I did a quick search of the name Andrew Leitch and realized we had a Revolutionary War hero. In my ignorance thinking everyone was as interested in history as I was, I assumed my future wife knew this fact. Of course…she didn’t. But now I had an “in” to keep talking to this young lady. And of course…she saw through it and had little interest in Andrew Leitch but it worked out and now we are married and have two great young kids. So, I partly owe all of this to Mr. Andrew Leitch.

Who was this little known hero and why did have a park named after him in Prince William County, VA?   In 1774 Andrew Leitch moved to Virginia from Maryland and began a new life in Northumberland County. He and his wife Margaret had three children and Leitch must have had influence because he was able to secure a commission as Captain in the 3rd Virginia Regiment on February 6, 1776. In this capacity he recruited men from Prince William County and led the Prince William Battalion (which also included men from Loudoun County). The Prince William Battalion joined the rest of the 3rd Virginia in Williamsburg in late February. Soon though Leitch received a promotion on June of the same year to Major in the 1st Virginia Regiment (though there is one source that places his promotion to Major on March 18th). As Washington moved his Continental Army from Boston to New York City in March 1776, he called for reinforcements. Men of the 1st Virginia and 3rd Virginia were called to join Washington in New York. For reasons unknown, the 1st Virginia was slow to get to New York. Leitch seemed to be a man of action as he joined his former men in the 3rd Virginia on their march to New York as they were a few weeks ahead of the 1st Virginia.

The 3rd Virginia did not arrive in New York in time for the disastrous Battle of Long


The Third Virginia flag captured at the Battle of Waxhaws on May 29, 1780. The flag is in a private collection.

Island, arriving in early September to join the American army on Harlem Heights. Washington was happy to see his fellow Virginians and he needed the reinforcements. The Americans had lost New York City and were pushed off of Long Island, all the way up to the northern tip of Manhattan Island. The Americans needed something to encourage them, a battlefield victory. Major Andrew Leitch played a crucial role in delivering that victory, though at a horrible cost.

Part 2 will cover Andrew Leitch’s role in the Battle of Harlem Heights and his once forgotten legacy.







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ERWS: Victory of Death Information Sheet

All the information on the upcoming release of one of the inaugural volumes of the Emerging Revolutionary War Series (ERWS) from Savas Beatie! 

Victory or Death AI Draft (1)-page-001

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Northwest Territory: Setting a Precedent

A precedent was set in early July for the young and aspiring American republic. A date other than July 4th and in fact, nine days and eleven years later.

July 13, 1787.


Northwest Ordinance (courtesy of

On that date, the United States Congress enacted the Northwest Ordinance which set in motion the precedent for how new states would enter the burgeoning United States of America. In 1784 the groundwork for the Northwest Ordinance was laid, rejecting a proposal that new territories, carved from ceded land of current states, would enter as colonies. Congress set up the following parameters.  Continue reading

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Standing on a Street Corner…

Now I know what you are thinking…the famous song by The Eagles. But, no.


Corner where Fort Gatlin once stood, Gatlin Avenue is running left to right, South Summerlin is off the right of the photo. Historical marker sign on left side of photo, D.A.R stone marker across street (to the right of the Jeep in the driveway) 

Continuing a theme from the last post, military history in Orlando, I did find myself standing on a street corner, South Summerlin Avenue and Gaitlin Avenue. That is when I noticed the small stone marker, placed by the Daughters of the American Revolution. Placed next to a hedge, on the corner of a driveway, sits until recently, the only reminder of this former military installation. Around this fort sprung a small county that became the county seat of Orange County, Florida by 1856. Which grew into Orlando.


An 1844 survey of Orange County, depicting Fort Gatlin (courtesy of the Bureau of Land Management, General Land Office Records and The Florida Historical Society

Constructed on November 9, 1838, by Lieutenant Alexander Fanning and four companies of the 4th U.S. Artillery, the post was one of several built across the breadth of central Florida during the Second Seminole War. Named in honor of Dr. John S. Gatlin, who had been killed in Major Dade’s Massacre on December 28, 1835. After completing the post, which was situated on a rise that commanded three lakes, Lt. Fanning and three companies departed, leaving 1st Lieutenant F.E. Hunt.

After June 1839, the United States Army had abandoned the post, yet state militia continue to garrison the wooden ramparts. A brief return in October 1849 by the army led to it becoming an active post, briefly, until the soldiers left shortly thereafter.


One side of informational panel of the Eagle Scout project for Fort Gatlin

Abandoned, besides the stone marker, until recently. A great Eagle Scout project produced a wooden two-panel history of Fort Gatlin, Native American history, early settlers, and the 2nd Seminole War. This stands on the same corner as the Florida historical marker and across the intersection from the Daughters of the American Revolution stone marker.

And standing for one day, a man on astreet corner, looking for history, a fine sight to see.



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