Robert Rogers and the French and Indian War

Today, Emerging Revolutionary War is pleased to welcome guest writer, Arthur Ceconi.

There are a few figures from the French and Indian War that are recognizable to Americans today.  They the European generals Jeffery Amherst, James Wolfe, and Louis-Joseph de Montcalm – Grozon, Marquis de Montcalm de Saint-Veran, and two North Americans, George Washington and Robert Rogers.  In some ways Robert Rogers is the person that many Americans growing up in the 20th century associate with the French and Indian War. 

In part, Rogers’ recognizability can be traced to the historical novel Northwest Passage by Kenneth Roberts, which was published in 1937.  It was the second best-selling novel published that year behind Gone with the Wind.  The book is split into two parts – the first part is about the 1759 raid on the Abenaki village of St. Francis by Robert Rogers and his Rangers, and the second part is about Rogers’ post French and Indian War life.

In 1940 MGM released the movie Northwest Passage (covering the raid on St. Francis) starring Spencer Tracy, Robert Young, and Walter Brennan.  The movie was nominated for an Academy Award for best cinematography.  MGM later produced a Northwest Passage TV series, and its 26 episodes aired in 1958 and 1959.

Rogers’ Early Life and the Beginning of the French and Indian War.

Robert Rogers was born in Massachusetts in 1731 and raised on the New Hampshire frontier.  Little is known about Rogers’ life prior to 1754.

In 1754 he was arrested for counterfeiting and was standing for trial in 1755 when New Hampshire began enlisting men for an expedition to take Fort St. Frederic at Crown Point on Lake Champlain.  Rogers raised a fifty-man company and obtained a captain’s commission.  Rogers’ company was part of a regiment commanded by Joseph Blanchard, a justice who presided over the counterfeiting case.  With that, the case ended.  Rogers’ first lieutenant was a man, who a few months earlier had provided incriminating testimony against him in the counterfeiting case, named John Stark.

The expedition against Fort St. Frederic, led by William Johnson, was underway when Rogers and his company arrived at the south end of Lake George a few days after Johnson’s colonial and native force defeated the French and allied native army led by Baron de Dieskau in September 1755.

After the Battle of Lake George Johnson’s force did not advance and began construction of Fort William Henry.  With Johnson’s native allies gone, he called upon Rogers and his New Hampshire men for scouting/reconnaissance and harassing/spoiling missions.  The missions were directed at Fort St. Frederic and Fort Carillon at Ticonderoga and brought back critical intelligence on the French movements and manpower, and they raised Rogers’ profile and stature.  The missions continued through the winter of 1755 – 1756 and kept the French on edge.  Rogers and the rangers were providing the Anglo-American military on the New York frontier with a scouting capability they sorely lacked.  In my view these small detachment scouting and harassing missions were where Rogers and the rangers excelled.  Because of their success, Rogers was charged in 1756 with raising an independent company of rangers.

Rogers and Larger Scale Missions He Commanded

Due to their audacious and successful spoiling raids, Rogers and the rangers were marked men.  From this point forward I am of the opinion that Rogers’ and the rangers’ significant engagements were largely unsuccessful and some were disastrous. 

The First Battle on Snowshoes occurred in January 1757.  Rogers and his command left Fort Edward and, after stopping at Fort William Henry, traveled down a frozen Lake George and bypassed Fort Carillon at its northern end.  Several miles north of Fort Carillon they saw a French sled heading for Fort St. Frederic.  John Stark and a group of rangers took the sled and seven prisoners.  However, a larger trailing group of French sleds observed the ambush and escaped to Fort Carillon.  Knowing they were now discovered, Rogers called a council of war to decide on their return route to Fort William Henry.  The officers recommended making a return by Wood Creek, east of Lake George, but Rogers overruled the council and ordered a march to their last campsite.  This tactic violated Rogers’ Rule 5 of ranging he had authored: “[I]n your return take a different route from that in which you went out, that you may the better discover any party in your rear, and have an opportunity, if their strength be superior to yours, to alter your course, or disperse, as circumstances may require.”

After gathering themselves at the prior campsite they dried their muskets and began their 40-mile journey to Fort William Henry.  Late in the afternoon a combined French and native force of about 180 men ambushed Rogers and his party.  After the initial shock from the ambush the rangers killed the seven French captives and formed a defensive perimeter holding out until nightfall, when they were able to retreat to Lake George.  The rangers eventually arrived at Fort William Henry two days later.  The battle toll on the rangers was substantial – of the 74 rangers in the battle 14 were killed, six were wounded, and six missing.  The French reported 18 dead (11 from the battle plus the seven captives killed at the outset of the ambush) and 27 wounded (casualty figures from French and Indian War frontier engagements should be taken with a grain of salt).

For the remainder of 1757 Rogers did not participate in the Northern New York theatre as he was sick with smallpox and later assigned to a failed campaign to take Louisburg.  However, the rangers were involved in both battles at Fort William Henry, the one in March and the siege in August.

In March 1758 Rogers led a force of about 180 out of Fort Edward toward Fort Carillon.  It was bitter cold and they proceeded down a frozen Lake George.  Before leaving, Rogers feared the secrecy of the mission may have been compromised in the days leading up to their departure by colonials captured outside Fort Edward.  During their journey the rangers found signs they were being observed, and in fact the French had discovered Rogers was approaching and watched his progress down Lake George.  Rogers decided to approach Fort Carillon by leaving Lake George and traveling overland from the southwest down Trout Brook, a small stream.  The snow was four feet deep and the rangers donned large racquet like snowshoes.  Rogers expected a French patrol would follow the brook and the rangers set-up an ambush. 

Rogers’ instincts were correct and as a 95-man patrol consisting mainly of natives entered the kill zone  an ambush was triggered.  The rangers initial volley killed and wounded many (Rogers reported 40 killed), with the survivors fleeing.  Some of the rangers descended on the dead and wounded and began killing the wounded and scalping the dead.  A large group of rangers chased the fleeing French and native survivors along Trout Brook and they ran head long into the main French and native force of about 200 led by the Canadian partisan fighter Ensign Jean-Baptiste Langy.  Langy’s main party unleashed a devastating volley on the rangers killing outright upwards of 50 rangers.  Within minutes the rangers were overwhelmed by the counterattack and faced annihilation.  Rogers rallied his remaining force and began a close-range fighting retreat toward Lake George.  The situation was growing desperate—Rogers had lost maybe half his force within a short time and men were continuing to drop under the relentless assault of the French and natives.  As darkness fell, Rogers and what was left of his command scattered and made their way to a rendezvous on Lake George.  Rogers’ escape is a mystery, but the legend is he slid down what is now known as Rogers Rock to the shore of the frozen lake.  A couple days after the battle Rogers and what remained of his command made their way to Fort Edward.  The rangers were decimated – only about 50 survived. 

In the summer of 1758 a British and American force of 17,000, the largest ever assembled in North America, gathered at the south end of Lake George.  Their first objective was Fort Carillon, approximately 35 miles north.  The army embarked by water with Rogers and the rangers leading the way.  Upon landing a few miles from Fort Carillon Rogers was sent ahead to secure an advance position and, finding no French, they were followed by a mixed advance guard of British regulars and colonials led by Brigadier General Lord George Augustus Howe, who was effectively the leader of the British expedition.  The advance Anglo-American guard encountered difficulty negotiating the terrain and collided surprisingly with a French party.  In the ensuing engagement the French were routed, but significantly, Lord Howe was killed.  With his death, General James Abercromby lost the heart of the command structure.  A couple days later Abercromby ordered the army to assault the French entrenched defensive line with the disastrous consequences of approximately 1,000 dead and 1,500 wounded between the two sides.

Following the Battle of Carillon, Abercromby’s army retreated and encamped at the south end of Lake George.  Fort Edward, situated on the Hudson River about 15 miles south, supplied Abercromby’s army by a military road.  The British supply trains were regularly attacked by French and native raiders who inflicted serious casualties and ransacked the supplies.  Following a couple major attacks Abercromby ordered a mixed force of rangers, colonials and regulars commanded by Rogers and Israel Putnam to intercept and destroy the raiders.  A force of about 700 men set out for South Bay and Wood Creek, an area a few miles east of Lake George. 

After  more than a week in the field Rogers’ and Putnam’s command could not locate the enemy, and the sick and injured were sent to Fort Edward reducing its size to 600.  The British force camped near the ruins of the long-abandoned Fort Anne.  Feeling secure, camp security was dropped, including Rogers and a British officer competing in a marksmanship contest.  Lurking nearby was a Canadian and native force of about 350 – 450 men led by Captain Joseph Marin de La Malgue, an experienced and skilled partisan fighter.  Marin set-up an ambush which the British force stumbled into.  The ambush was sprung and Putnam was seized at its onset.  Rogers rallied the command and beat back the French, inflicting serious casualties.  Reported British losses were 37 dead, 40 wounded and 26 missing.  Rogers returned to Fort Edward with 50 plus scalps and it had been estimated Marin may have lost as many as 70 to 100 men.

In 1759 Major General Jeffery Amherst led a campaign to take Forts Carillon and St. Frederic and drive north up the Richelieu River into Canada.  As the army of 11,000 approached Forts Carillon and St. Frederic the French blew up the forts and withdrew north into Canada.  The campaign stalled as the British began construction of a massive fort at Crown Point, next to the ruins of Fort St. Frederic.  Rogers and his rangers were attached to Amherst’s army.

Rogers had long wanted to attack an Abenaki settlement at St. Francis, which is located south of the St. Lawrence River about midway between Montreal and Quebec.  The Abenaki originally lived in Massachusetts and Maine, but as the English encroached, a group settled in St. Francis.  Around 1700 the Jesuits established a mission at St. Francis converting many Abenakis to Catholicism, and the St. Francis people became closely allied with the French.  For decades Abenaki war parties from St. Francis terrorized the New England frontier, developing a notorious reputation among English frontier settlers such as Rogers.

In September 1759 Amherst approved a raid on St. Francis.  Rogers with a force of approximately 200 men – rangers, Stockbridge natives, provincials and British regulars – left Crown Point by whaleboat heading 80 miles north down Lake Champlain.   After beaching their craft, they set out on foot across Southern Canada; St. Francis was 75 miles away.  Soon after leaving Lake Champlain their boats were discovered by the French and Rogers was warned by Stockbridge allies of the French discovery.  Rogers considered his options and decided to push on to St. Francis.  He sent back to Crown Point 58 sick and injured, proceeding with 142 men.  The trip was daunting as the expedition crossed spruce bogs and unforgiving wilderness reaching St. Francis on October 4, three weeks after leaving Crown Point.

At daybreak Rogers’ force struck St. Francis and overwhelmed the village.  Most of the Abenaki warriors were away.  After pillaging the village the English torched it and departed knowing full well they were being pursued.  The English battle casualties were one killed and seven wounded and the estimates of Abenaki killed range from 30 to 200.

After traveling through Southern Canada Rogers’ force was out of food and still being pursued.  After nine days the party split up, with most heading to a rendezvous on the Connecticut River.  At the rendezvous the expected relief was absent so Rogers traveled to Fort No. 4 and brought food and supplies to his starving survivors on November 4.  The objective was achieved, St. Francis was destroyed, but of the 142-man English force that raided the village only 80 men made it to Fort No. 4 and Crown Point.

What to make of Rogers

Rogers is an iconic French and Indian War personality.  He is the key figure in many books, a landmark movie, and a TV show.  Historians have studied him for centuries.  But how should he be viewed as a military figure? 

The French and Indian War’s frontier was violent and brutal.  The terrain was rugged and engagements often occurred in remote areas during the winter.  The weapons were lethal and wounds very often fatal.

My opinion is that Rogers was a highly capable woodsman and scout at a time when the English sorely lacked such capability.  The raids he conducted in 1755 and 1756 kept the French on constant alert and provided British forces with much needed intelligence.  He was brave, physically strong, indefatigable, and a leader of men.  I would not call him a uniquely capable woodsman because Canada had many experienced and battle-hardened Canadian officers of Compagnies franches de la Marinein the field such as Langy, Marin, and Langlade, as well as a large contingent of coureur des bois, and one can plausibly argue these Canadians were superior bush fighters to Rogers.  His Rules for Ranging Service have withstood the test time.  Some of Rogers’ best personal qualities (bravery, leadership, clear thinking, resourcefulness) showed when he faced possible disaster as he and the rangers were able to inflict significant casualties on their foes and Rogers every time led his surviving command to safety.

When I push my self back and examine Rogers as a military tactician and his contributions to the British triumph in North America I have a very different opinion from many historians.  Why was he ambushed so often?  Why did he fail to adhere to the Rules for Ranging Service at key times?  Why were his men put at risk in battles and campaigns of no strategic consequence?  In the crucial British victories of the French and Indian War Rogers did not play a role. 

The purpose of this essay is not to tarnish Rogers’ military legacy, but to rather bring to light the blemishes of his service in the French and Indian War so there can be a balanced view of “the brave Major Rogers.”


  • White Devil by Steven Brumwell
  • A True Ranger by Gary Stephen Zaboly
  • The History of Rogers Rangers, Volume 1, by Burt Garfield Loescher
  • War on the Run by John F. Ross
  • Betrayals by Ian K. Steele
  • The Annotated and Illustrated Journals of Major Robert Rogers by Timothy Todish
  • Ticonderoga 1758 by Rene Chartand
  • Empires in the Mountains by Russell P. Bellico
  • Stark by Richard Polhemus and John Polhemus
  • Rogers Rangers and the French and Indian War by Bradford Smith
  • Wilderness Empire by Allan W. Eckert
  • Robert Rogers’ Rules For Ranging Service
  • Northwest Passage by Kenneth Roberts

Sites Visited

  • Crown Point State Historic Site
  • Fort Ticonderoga
  • Fort William Henry Museum
  • Lake George Battlefield Park
  • Rogers Island Visitors Center and Museum

Art Ceconi was raised in North Tarrytown, New York (now Sleepy Hollow) and is a longtime resident of Montville, New Jersey where he currently lives with his wife Eileen. A retired tax attorney, he earned degrees from Fordham University (BS), Rutgers Business School (MBA), Rutgers School of Law (JD), and New York University School of Law (LLM).

Art’s passion for North American colonial history took root with a family vacation to Lake George as a 7th grader. His reading and research centers on the French and Indian War and Revolutionary War. As his five daughters can attest, no family vacation was complete without visiting at least one historical site.


Slathered on hamburgers across the United States of America. Added to coleslaw recipes. In Germany used to dip pomme frites, French fries into. This condiment or sauce is well-known throughout a large percentage of the globe. However, did you know that this white sauce has a tie to the French and Indian or Seven Years War?

Recently I was reading a book, Gibraltar: The Greatest Siege in British History by Roy and Lesley Adkins. When discussing some of the history leading up to the siege of Gibraltar from 1779-1783, the authors referenced an earlier siege, unrelated to Gibraltar actually, and had a note about the creation of mayonnaise.

Like any good historian, I decided to investigate the founding of this sauce that is used so predominantly in America. Below is what I found.

Created for a victory celebration after the French’s successful defeat of the British on the island of Minorca, also spelled Menorca which is the Catalan spelling. The siege and battle had lasted 70 days, from April 20 to June 29, 1756 and had cost the French approximately 3-4,000 casualties. The British loss around 400 men and one of the strategic defenses and the Mediterranean Sea. The French remained in control of the island until the end of the Seven Years’ War. The island recaptured by the Br was returned to the British at the end of the war, trading the island of Guadeloupe for it as part of the peace treaty signed in Paris.

Yet, after the British surrendered Fort St. Philip, in 1756, which protected the town and seaport of Mahon a large victory banquet was held. The French leader, the Duke de Richelieu instructed his chef to to create a feast that would honor the great victory. The island lacked the cream needed for the sauce the chef wanted to make so he invented the egg and oil dressing.

He named the concoction Mahon-aise, after the town he created the sauce in.

Hope you are reading this around lunchtime!

P.S. The author realizes that a few other accounts exist about the creation of the this sauce. Including that the chef of the French duke was told about the sauce by the inhabitants of the island who had already created it.

Braddock’s Defeat: An Evening with David L. Preston

On July 9, 1755, British regulars and American colonial troops under the command of General Edward Braddock, commander in chief of His Majesty’s Forces in North America, were attacked by French and Native American warriors shortly after crossing the Monongahela River while making their way to besiege Fort Duquesne in the Ohio Valley near modern-day Pittsburgh. The long line of red-coated troops struggled to maintain cohesion and discipline as Native American warriors quickly outflanked them and used the dense cover of the woods to masterful and lethal effect. Within hours, a powerful British army was routed, its commander mortally wounded, and two-thirds of its forces casualties in one the worst disasters in British military history.

Join us this Sunday evening at 7 p.m. for our latest Rev War Revelry as we sit down with historian David L. Preston to discuss his book and this critical event in America’s colonial history.

“Rev War Revelry” Spends an Evening on Lake George Battlefield

With the turkey eaten, Black Friday shopping completed, and a slate of American football watched, and prior to cyber Monday beginning, Emerging Revolutionary War invites you to tune in for a historian happy hour. This week “Rev War Revelry” returns to the French and Indian War and welcomes as guests Lake George Battlefield Park Alliance President John DiNuzzi and the Board of Trustee Member Lyn Hohmann.

The discussion will entail their organizations effort to preserve and interpret one of the America’s most historical places and hallowed ground.

“The Lake George Battlefield Park was the scene of major battles during the French and Indian War and American Revolutionary War, and the home of Fort George, a key anchor of first British and then American military strategies in those world-changing conflicts. Enveloped by the natural beauty of the Adirondack Mountains in the town of Lake George, the site’s history reflects its prominence as part of the crucial Hudson River-Lake George-Lake Champlain corridor in the mid-to-late 18th Century.”

The Lake George Battlefield Park Alliance’s effort to commemorate the ground is so invaluable to telling the overall story. Joining the two guest historians and preservationists will be ERW historian Billy Griffith who is an author on a book with the HistoryPress on the actions around Lake George.

Grab that last remaining beer, tune in to our Facebook page this Sunday, at 7 p.m. EDT, and hear the amazing work being done in New York. How else would you want to round out the holiday weekend?

Americana Corner

Our monthly recap of what our good friend and fellow historian Tom Hand has written on his blog, AmericanaCorner. Also, check out Emerging Revolutionary War’s YouTube page for a “Rev War Revelry” with Tom Hand done earlier this month.

September 21st:
Americans with a Shared Future Meet at the Stamp Act Congress

The Stamp Act Congress was held in New York in 1765 in response to the Stamp Act, a piece of legislation passed by Parliament. The Act itself and the events that transpired because of it would prove to be hugely impactful on the destiny of America. Read it here.

September 14th:
Fort Ticonderoga: A Key Component in America’s Quest for Independence

Fort Ticonderoga in upstate New York is arguably the best-preserved fort from the 1700s in North America. It was the site of several engagements in both the French and Indian War and the American Revolution. Its military significance is matched only by the natural beauty that surrounds the site. Read it here.

September 7th:
British Colonies Work Together During the Albany Congress of 1754

The Albany Congress was held in the summer of 1754 and represents the first time the British colonies in North America ever attempted joint action. Unlike the conventions held in later decades, which focused on pushing back against England, the goal of this conference was to help the British in their fight against the French and their Indian allies. Read it here.

East Florida Rangers

When thirteen North American colonies rebelled against the British crown, the future state of Florida was not part of that movement. In fact, the settled part of the future 27th state of the United States was partitioned into East and West Florida. Both colonies also declined an invitation to send delegates to the Continental Congress.

East & West Florida colonies

West Florida, spanned from slightly east of Pensacola, which was the capital, across to Louisiana and included parts of modern Alabama, Louisiana, Florida, and Mississippi. East Florida, spanned the rest of northern Florida from the Apalachicola River to the Atlantic seaboard and down the peninsula. The capital was located at St. Augustine, founded in 1565 by the Spanish.

During the American Revolution, both East and West Florida would play a role as the rebellion spread into a world conflict, bringing into the fighting the European nations of France and Spain. In East Florida, St. Augustine would send north British soldiers to assist in operations in Georgia and South Carolina and also house American prisoners, including three Signers of the Declaration of Independence; Arthur Middleton, Edward Rutledge, and Thomas Heyward, Jr. Other prisoners, both Americans and French were also confined to the town too.

Continue reading “East Florida Rangers”

George Washington’s Land Interest in British West Florida, 1773-1774

Emerging Revolutionary War welcomes guest historian George Kotlik.

After the French & Indian War, the British Crown sought to regulate colonial westward settlement and expansion. This was done for a variety of reasons. First, British ministers believed that westward expansion would require administration over newly acquired territory.[1] British leaders also feared that unrestricted colonial expansion could lead to ungovernable colonies who would, over time, seek to split with Great Britain.[2] Most importantly, Britain had acquired Florida and almost all of the territory under New France east of the Mississippi River at the conclusion of the Seven Years’ War. British ministers sought to redirect western settlement towards Canada and the Florida’s.[3] Regulation of western land settlement also protected Indian lands from white encroachments. This measure sought to prevent further Indian wars.[4] The impositions placed on westward settlement infuriated colonial land speculators who sought to gain much wealth in acquiring western lands. After the Great War for Empire, George Washington and other veteran officers of that conflict were awarded land in exchange for their services to the Crown.[5] Many eyed lands in the Ohio Country, but after the October 7 Proclamation of 1763, most acreage in that vast wilderness lay out of reach. The account of Washington’s interest in North America’s western lands is popular and well-known. However, lesser known is the former British officer’s interest in West Florida land.[6]

Continue reading “George Washington’s Land Interest in British West Florida, 1773-1774”

Following in Father’s Footsteps

On June 12, 1781, William Pitt, referred to as the “Younger” to differentiate from his father, Lord Chatham, William Pitt, and former prime minister of Great Britain during the Seven Years’ War, stood up in the House of Commons.

Like his late father, Pitt spoke on a war, this time not in favor of a conflict but in opposition. Also like his father, he spoke with a passion and eloquence that marked him for future roles of higher prominence. He also stood to correct his father’s legacy in regards to the Americans which that day was referred to by other members in Parliament. His view on the current war, the American Revolution, is quite evident.

“A Noble Lord who spoke earlier has in the warmth of his zeal called this a holy war. For my part, although the Right Honorouble gentleman who made the motion, and some other gentlemen, have been more than once in the course of the debate reprehended for calling it a wicked or accursed war, I am persuaded, and I will affirm, that it is a most accursed, wicked, barbarous, cruel, unnatural, unjust, and most diabolical

The expense of it has been enormous, far beyond any former experience, and yet what has the British nation received in return? Nothing but a series of ineffective victories or severe defeats–victories only celebrated with temporary triumph over our brethren whom we would trample down, or defeats which fill the land with mourning for the loss dear and valuable relations, slain in the impious cause of enforcing unconditional submission. Where is the Englishman who on reading the narrative of those bloody and well-fought contests can refrain from lamenting the loss of so much British blood shed in such a cause, or from weeping on whatever side Victory might be declared?”

Approximately a year and a half later, in December 1783, the 24-year old William Pitt became the prime minister of Great Britain. His tenure as prime minister, which lasted into the 19th century, would like his father’s, be marked with a war against France.

Yet, for a brief moment, in late spring, in London, William Pitt, the Younger, stood up, without preparing, as he did not intend to speak that day, and gave a passionate but reasonable response to the issue of the war with America. His closing words ring through the centuries.

Who (in Pitt’s case Englishmen but substitute whomever you’d like) “can refrain from lamenting the loss…or weeping on whatever side Victory might be declared.”

“Rev War Roundtable with ERW” French and Indian Sojourn

For the past few weeks, Emerging Revolutionary War has, naturally, centered our “Rev War Revelry” on topics associated with the American Revolution. However, our blog is dedicated to the the Revolutionary era and so to live up to that name, our historian happy hour will focus on George Washington, the French and Indian War, and the frontier, especially Western Pennsylvania, and see where the conversation goes from there.

This week, ERW historians will be joined by Dr. Walter Powell, who has been the president of the Braddock Road Preservation Association for the past 30 years and has been very active in French and Indian War events.

Joining Dr. Powell as a guest is John Miller, the Operations Director for Monterey Pass Museum and Battlefield ans the Executive Director of Shippensburg (PA) Historical Soceity.

We look forward to you joining Emerging Revolutionary War on our Facebook page at 7pm EST this Sunday. Along with your favorite beverage, remember to bring with your questions and comments as we embark on this sojourn to the French and Indian War in a history happy hour!

Symposium Recap

One week has passed since the first annual Emerging Revolutionary War symposium. Held in conjunction with Historic Alexandria, Virginia at the Lyceum, the theme was “Before they were Americans.”

With a day of lectures, keynoted by Dr. Peter Henriques, professor emeritus of George Mason University the topics ranged from the French and Indian War, to George Washington, to material culture, smallpox, and Boston on the Road to Revolution. The day ended with a panel of historians in a Q&A session.

Over 70 people attended and many joined members of Emerging Revolutionary War and Historic Alexandria at Gadsby’s Tavern, an 18th century tavern with a great connection to American history, including a a ballroom used by Washington to celebrate his birthdays!

Plans are already in motion for the second annual Emerging Revolutionary War symposium to be held in late September of 2020 back in Alexandria, Virginia. Stay tuned to this blog and our Facebook page for information as that day draws near.

In the meantime, check out some of the photos below, taken by ERW historian Rob Orrison, who along with Liz Williams of Historic Alexandria were the driving forces behind making this symposium possible. A big thank you to all who attended and we hope to see you next year!